‘be cheerful, enjoy your life’ – says one 2,400 year-old mosaic

According to archeologist Demet Kara at Hatay Archeology Museum, the mosaic is a part of ancient Greek-Roman city of Antioch and has an Ancient Greek inscription saying ‘Be cheerful, enjoy your life.’

The ancient city of Antioch was established by Seleucus I Nicator -who is one of Alexander the Great’s generals- in the 4th century BCE. It is known to be the first place where the followers of Jesus were referred to as Christians.

 

Christian Graffiti – “ΙΧΘΥΣ” (Ichthus)

ΙΧΘΥΣ (Ichthus) is an backronym/acrostic for “Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ“, (Iēsous Christos, Theou Yios, Sōtēr), which translates into English as “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior”.

  • Iota (i) is the first letter of Iēsous (Ἰησοῦς), Greek for “Jesus“.
  • Chi (ch) is the first letter of Christos (Χριστός), Greek for “anointed”.
  • Theta (th) is the first letter of Theou (Θεοῦ), Greek for “God’s”, the genitive case of ΘεóςTheos, Greek for “God”.
  • Upsilon (y) is the first letter of (h)uios (Υἱός), Greek for “Son”.
  • Sigma (s) is the first letter of sōtēr (Σωτήρ), Greek for “Savior”.

Legend and history surrounding the use of Ichthus and the fish symbol in early christianity abounds; however we know that there is definite historical usage, since Augustine explains it’s meaning in his “City of God”, and because it is found in ancient sites like Ephesus, in modern day Izmir Province, Turkey.

IMG_4703

 

My favorite artifacts housed in Şanliurfa’s Archeology Museum

“The history of civilization began here!” Quite a claim, which makes visiting Sanliurfa’s Archeological Museum in Sanliurfa, Turkey all the more exciting.

Here are my favorite artifacts founds in this massive museum.

"The Urfa/Balıklıgöl Statue" is the oldest human-sized statue yet discovered. Dating from the 11th century BCE this statue of a man dropping his genitals is from the Neolithic period and seems to have been a part of a temple dedicated to a god of reproduction or eroticism. It is housed in Şanliurfa’s Archeology Museum in Şanliurfa, Turkey.
“The Urfa/Balıklıgöl Statue” is the oldest human-sized statue yet discovered. Dating from the 11th century BCE this statue of a man dropping his genitals is from the Neolithic period and seems to have been a part of a temple dedicated to a god of reproduction or eroticism. It is housed in Şanliurfa’s Archeology Museum in Şanliurfa, Turkey.

 

Statue of a military commander from the Roman Period. t is housed in Şanliurfa’s Archeology Museum in Şanliurfa, Turkey.
Statue of a military commander from the Roman Period. t is housed in Şanliurfa’s Archeology Museum in Şanliurfa, Turkey.

 

These large tablets comes from the 6th-5th century BCE. They contain the inscriptions from King Nabonidus, who was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC. These tablets were found in Harran -- near Sanliurfa, Turkey -- which was an Assyrian stronghold and also contained the temple of the moon-goddess, of whom Nabonidus' mother was a priestess. It is housed at the Sanliurfa Archeological Museum in Sanliurfa, Turkey.
These large tablets comes from the 6th-5th century BCE. They contain the inscriptions from King Nabonidus, who was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC. These tablets were found in Harran — near Sanliurfa, Turkey — which was an Assyrian stronghold and also contained the temple of the moon-goddess, of whom Nabonidus’ mother was a priestess. It is housed at the Sanliurfa Archeological Museum in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

 

This totem statue was found at the Gobekli Tepe site near Sanliurfa, Turkey. The Gobekli Tepe site is the oldest man-made place of worship yet discovered, dating back to 10,000 BCE. Found in the cradle of civilization, Gobekli Tepe has reshaped archeologist's understanding of religion and culture in the neolithic and pre-historic ages.
This totem statue was found at the Gobekli Tepe site near Sanliurfa, Turkey. The Gobekli Tepe site is the oldest man-made place of worship yet discovered, dating back to 10,000 BCE. Found in the cradle of civilization, Gobekli Tepe has reshaped archeologist’s understanding of religion and culture in the neolithic and pre-historic ages.

Istanbul Coffee Festival: Recap

A couple weeks ago I shared how excited I was for the Istanbul Coffee Festival. Well, it has come and gone, and I must say, I was very impressed. As my wife and I walked up to Haydrapasa Station in Istanbul we were greeted with the sweet aroma of dozens of roasters and baristas working fervently to brew a cup that appeals to all senses.

Appealing to All Senses: There is something more to coffee than its caffeine stimulus and its action on the taste buds of the tongue and mouth. The sense of smell and the sense of sight play important roles. To get all the joy there is in a cup of coffee, it must look good and smell good, before one can pronounce its taste good. It must woo us through the nostrils with the wonderful aroma that constitutes much of the lure of coffee. – William H. Ukers (All About Coffee)

Unfortunately, I can’t share the aroma through this medium, but I can share the sights.

IMG_9611

IMG_9628IMG_9632IMG_9721IMG_9617

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMG_9694

IMG_9713

IMG_9649IMG_9641

IMG_9701

IMG_9711

IMG_9715IMG_9677IMG_9647

IMG_9614

Istanbul Coffee Festival

In Kadıköy, on Istanbul’s Anatolia side, proudly stands Haydarpaşa train station. The Guide Istanbul describes Haydarpaşa train station as once being “one of the busiest train stations in the world, connecting the Orient Express line from Europe to the Baghdad-Hijaz railway of the Middle East. The station’s castle-like German architecture contrasts with the Oriental tiles inside, giving a perfect historical atmosphere for the world’s most innovative coffee providers.” Pretty intriguing description, one that makes this year’s Istanbul Coffee Festival exciting for more than being a coffee festival, which is exciting enough.

The 2015 Istanbul Coffee Festival will be Turkey’s (perhaps Eurasia’s) largest gathering of third-wave coffee enthusiasts – professionals, owners, roasters, connoisseurs, baristas, and newbies included. What is “third-wave coffee”, you ask? Esquire answers that in the most entertaining way.

As a way to celebrate and prepare for the festival (I get to go this year!), I’d like to introduce you to some of my favorite (and I think the best) coffee specialists, roasters, and shops in Turkey.

Kronotrop – When it opened in 2012 it was one of the first specialty coffee roasters in Istanbul, and all of Turkey for that matter (Çekirdek being the other shop laying claim to breaking ground first. Unfortunately, I’ve not been able to visit this shop yet). Kronotrop recently moved from the Taksim area of Istanbul to the heart of the historical sites of the city in Eminonu. So right after you go see the 1,500 year old museum/church/mosque (Hagia Sophia), go on down and get some good coffee.

Coffeetopia – Just around the corner from Krontrop you’ll find Coffeetopia. Specialty coffee in Turkey wouldn’t be where it is today if it where not for Şerif and Özlem Başaran. As a certified WBC Technical Judge, and owner of Coffee Factory, which provides beans to other shops in Turkey, Şerif has influence throughout the Turkish and European coffee world. This is there first retail venture and they are doing it right.

Petra Coffee – Petra has a small kiosk in Istanbul, but the place to try their coffee is in the Tuscany style beach town of Alaçatı. Petra came flying onto the coffee scene and made a big splash, they took fourth place last year at the World Coffee Roasting Championship in Rimini, Italy. But there is no specialty roaster with a space like they have in Alaçatı. A village beach town where everything moves slowly is the perfect place to try their cold brew on a hot summer’s day.

Brew Lab – Being led by Turkish Barista and Latte Art champion Özkan Yetik and being located on the most famous street in Turkey gives this coffee shop an edge, but the amazing coffee seals the deal. Featuring the likes of Japanese iced coffee and fun with siphons they are sure to please

Two Cups Coffee – For years the coffee scene in Turkey has only been represented in Istanbul. Thankfully over the last year Izmir has seen an influx of 3-5 specialty coffee shops (with Petra being close by in Alaçatı) – since I live here, I am especially grateful. On the top of my list is Two Cups. Located in the hip neighborhood of Alsancak, Two Cups is owned and operated by Tolga Onder. While I haven’t had the chance to try my favorite coffee (Ethiopian Kochere) I’ve been wonderfully satisfied by their Guatemalan and Honduras roasts. I’m even more excited that they are only a short ferry ride away.

While the Third Wave Coffee scene has yet to hit all the corners of Turkey, the Istanbul Coffee Festival is evidence of specialty coffee’s growing popularity and success.